Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis, affecting over three million people each year in the United States. Caused by a general wearing down of the protective cartilage located on the end of your bones, osteoarthritis can damage any joint, but most commonly is found in the knees, hips, hands, and spine .

Causes of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the result of gradual deterioration of the cartilage located at the end of the bones and the joints of the body. As osteoarthritis progresses, the slick surface normally created by cartilage wears away, leaving the area of contact between bone and joint unprotected; the eventual result is a situation where bone is left rubbing directly on bone during movement.

Risk Factors Associated with Osteoarthritis

While generally associated with deterioration of cartilage over time, research has demonstrated that there are specific risk factors that increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis, including:

  • Advanced age; the risk of osteoarthritis is greater as age increases.
  • Gender; women are more likely to develop osteoarthritis than men.
  • Being overweight or obese; the more someone weighs, the greater the risk of developing osteoporosis.
  • Injuries to the joints.
  • Repetitive motion, specifically from jobs that cause repetitive pressure and stress on a joint as a result of lifting, bending, carrying, and/or twisting.
  • Genetic predisposition, research demonstrates that there is an inherited genetic tendency to develop osteoarthritis.



Often developing as a result of long-term “wear and tear” on the joint, symptoms of osteoarthritis tend to develop slowly and become progressively more intense over time; the most common symptoms of osteoarthritis include:


General joint pain and discomfort, especially during or after physical activity.


Tenderness, joints affected by osteoarthritis can be sensitive to the touch, with even slight pressure causing pain.


Joint stiffness, most likely first thing in the morning or after prolonged periods of sitting or inactivity.


Decreased range of motion/flexibility, including grinding, grating, or rubbing sensation when moving the joint.


Bone spurs, or hard, tiny bone fragments that form around the joint.


While examining your joints and checking for swelling, inflammation, and loss of motion, your doctor will also review your medical history.

In addition to a physical evaluation, your care provider might also order a lab test to analyze your joint fluid for the presence of inflammation. Medical imaging tests might also be ordered to further evaluate the condition of the affected joint, this might include:

● X-rays

Possible Treatments

Since there is no known cure for osteoarthritis, treatment of arthritis centers on managing symptoms to decrease inflammation, relieve pain, and improve function and range of motion of the affected joint. While osteoarthritis cannot be cured, staying active and maintaining a healthy weight will help to slow progression, reduce pain and inflammation, and improve joint function.

The specific treatment methods for osteoarthritis will vary depending on location and severity, and may include


such as acetaminophen to relieve pain, NSAIDs to reduce inflammation, and corticosteroids to further reduce inflammation. More invasive medications/procedures might include injections of hyaluronic acid to increase cushioning in the joint.

Physical therapy and Occupational therapy

to strengthen muscles around the joint, improve range of motion, and to modify daily tasks in a way that reduces stress on that joint affected by osteoarthritis.


to realign the bones or replace the joint with artificial components, including plastic or metal.

Dr.Raju Mantena
Dr. Raju Mantena is an anesthesiologist and pain specialist based in the Houston area and has over 15 years of medical experience which he relies upon each day to successfully treat his patients’ acute and chronic pain.

At 360 Pain Treatment, our mission is to provide compassionate pain relief, restore prior function and activity levels, and optimize the quality of life for all.


360 Pain Treatment aspires to create a culture of care in our communities by helping those suffering with pain to live more pain-free and thus improving their quality of life.

  • Compassion for all who are ailing and in need of help.
  • Advancement of minimally invasive healthcare procedures that firstly considers patient wellbeing.
  • Respect and inclusion for everyone we serve in our communities.
  • Excellence and efficiency in all that we do.

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I’ve had terrible migraines for as long as I can remember, and nothing seemed to work. A friend of mine turned me on to Dr. Mantena and I’m so grateful she did. It’s been almost two months, and I haven’t had even one migraine in that time. I was getting them every week before, so this is amazing. A big thanks to Dr. Mantena

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